Hi and Happy New Year 2021! Long time no see. Seeing as I have watched most of YouTube, I’ve decided to make some grammar videos using video clips. These videos shows the connection between the past and the present that is needed for the present perfect tense.
Present perfect always needs some elements of past and present. If you only have past, it’s past simple:
I went to Spain last year
If you are talking generally about the present, it’s present simple:
The moon goes around the earth.
If you are talking about right now in the present, it’s present continuous:
I’m sitting at my desk typing.
As soon as you talk about events in the past that clearly effect the present, such as a fall when the person is still on the ground,
“She’s fallen and she can’t get up” (She fell -past- and is lying on the floor -present-)
or you break something,
“I’ve broken your cup” (I broke your cup -past- the cup is still broken -present-)
you need present perfect. When the past effects the present like this you have a result in the present, so this use of present perfect is called “present perfect for result“. There are other times you need present perfect, for example when you say “how long” something has gone on for. As always with present perfect this also needs past and present elements:
I’ve lived here for 3 years. (I started living here three years ago -past- and I live here now -present)
I’ll cover this in the next video.
Anyway, enjoy and take care,