Linking Words: Cause and effect

OK, I know a pretty boring topic but I thought it would be useful to post this simple summary I’ve based on There’s nothing like linking words to scramble the brain, but it’s not as complicated as it seems.


Linking devices are used to link one idea or argument to another. A common situation is when we are talking about something that happens and its result, or a cause and its effect.

  • [CAUSE] The population has increased. [EFFECT] The government is going to build more houses.

Group one

Therefore, consequently, as a result, thus
  • Join two ideas together
  • Usually placed between the two ideas
  • Are followed by a comma
  • Come before the effect

[CAUSE]                                                                                   [EFFECT]

The temperatures are rising  therefore,    there are more floods


                                                    as a result,

                                                    thus, (Watch out! old fashioned)

Group two

because of, as a result of, due to, owing to*
  • – Come before a noun phrase
    • e.g. the time of day / a rise of temperature / warmer Summers
  • – or participle clause (beginning with a verb, usually in the -ing form)
    • e.g.  *melting ice / rising sea levels / increasing carbon emissions
  • – Come before the cause at the beginning or end of the sentence.

                        [CAUSE]    [EFFECT]

Because of

Due to             melting ice, the sea levels will rise

Owing to

As a result of


[EFFECT]                                                [CAUSE]

The sea levels will rise           due to          melting ice.

                                                   owing to

                                                   because of

                                                   as a result of

So, that’s it from me!

Take care and ’til then


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