Linking Words: Cause and effect

OK, I know a pretty boring topic but I thought it would be useful to post this simple summary I’ve based on https://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/english/course/intermediate/unit-10/tab/grammar. There’s nothing like linking words to scramble the brain, but it’s not as complicated as it seems.

Summary

Linking devices are used to link one idea or argument to another. A common situation is when we are talking about something that happens and its result, or a cause and its effect.

  • [CAUSE] The population has increased. [EFFECT] The government is going to build more houses.

Group one

Therefore, consequently, as a result, thus
  • Join two ideas together
  • Usually placed between the two ideas
  • Are followed by a comma
  • Come before the effect

[CAUSE]                                                                                   [EFFECT]

The temperatures are rising  therefore,    there are more floods

                                                   consequently,

                                                    as a result,

                                                    thus, (Watch out! old fashioned)

Group two

because of, as a result of, due to, owing to*
  • – Come before a noun phrase
    • e.g. the time of day / a rise of temperature / warmer Summers
  • – or participle clause (beginning with a verb, usually in the -ing form)
    • e.g.  *melting ice / rising sea levels / increasing carbon emissions
  • – Come before the cause at the beginning or end of the sentence.

                        [CAUSE]    [EFFECT]

Because of

Due to             melting ice, the sea levels will rise

Owing to

As a result of

Or…

[EFFECT]                                                [CAUSE]

The sea levels will rise           due to          melting ice.

                                                   owing to

                                                   because of

                                                   as a result of

So, that’s it from me!

Take care and ’til then

Sally

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